Cách sử dụng Contain, Include, Consist và Involve

1. Contain: nghĩa là chứa đựng ==> thành phần chính

Lưu ý:

  • have as the main or only part ( đóng vai trò là yếu tố chính hoặc yếu tố duy nhất )
  • be formed from different things ( được tạo nên bởi những thứ khác nhau)

Xét ví dụ:

  • How much liquid do you think this bottle contains? 
  • I lost a file containing a lot of important documents. 
  • Try to avoid foods which contain a lot of fat. 
  • The allegations contained in this report are very serious
  • Raw vegetables contain more potassium than cooked ones. 
  • These biscuits contain oats. 
  • The cupboard contained all kinds of strange things. 
  • The following programme contains scenes that may be disturbing to some viewers. 
  • The letter contains a number of typing errors.

2. Include: nghĩa là bao gồm, còn nhiều thứ khác trong đó nữa

Lưu ý: be part of the whole / make part of the whole ( là một phần của tổng thể / tạo thành 1 phần trong tổng thể )

Xét ví dụ:

  • The bill includes tax and service. 
  • Tax and service are included in the bill. [ + -ing verb ] 
  • Your responsibilities will include making appointments on my behalf.
  • Mozart's musical compositions include symphonies and operas. 
  • Symptoms of the illness include a high temperature and a persistent dry cough. 
  • This dictionary includes both British and American spellings of words. 
  • The museum's collection includes works of art from all around the world. 
  • Additional benefits include a company car and free health insurance.

3. Involve: nghĩa là bao gồm, liên quan đến hoặc liên lụy

Xét ví dụ:

  • Research involving the use of biological warfare agents will be used for defensive purposes. [ + -ing verb ] 
  • The operation involves putting a small tube into your heart.
  • The second accident involved two cars and a lorry.
  • I prefer teaching methods that actively involve students in learning. 
  • She's been involved with animal rights for many years. 
  • It would be difficult not to involve the child's father in the arrangements.
  • The new mayor is keen to involve the local community in his plans for the city. 
  • They said that the job would involve travelling to Paris. 
  • She was very involved with sports at college, and her studies suffered. 
  • Her job involves filing and other general office work. 
  • The test involves simple calculations, such as addition and subtraction.

4. Consist of: nghĩa là bao gồm

Xét ví dụ:

  • The team consists of four Europeans and two Americans. 
  • It's a simple dish to prepare, consisting mainly of rice and vegetables.
  • A company's assets can consist of cash, investments, buildings, machinery, specialist knowledge or copyright material such as music or computer software. 
  • Many jazz trios consist of a piano, guitar and double bass. 
  • Atoms consist of positively-charged protons, negatively-charged electrons and neutral particles called neutrons. 
  • The meal consisted of smoked salmon, followed by guinea fowl. 
  • •Breakfast, such as it was, consisted of a plain roll and a cup of coffee.